Maxx Performance

Optimizing Ingredients

Custom Development

Experts at your service.

When we’re not consulting on product development, our science and technology experts
are available to answer all your formulation and other questions.

  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.
I want to produce beef jerky sticks but my initial production of beef sticks did not turn out well. I used raw Citric Acid and the meat turned completely brown. Do you have a Citric Acid in your inventory that will help overcome this issue?

The addition of raw Citric Acid to meat will cause protein denaturation which is a typical brown discoloration of the meat myoglobin which is what your customer experienced. Our company has provided timed released Citric Acid as well as other acids to the meat industry for several years that are used to overcome protein denaturation. You can request samples from us at any time.

Discussion courtesy of Winston Samuels, Ph.D.

We have a proprietary blend that we put on a pretzel as a topping that within the bake cycle, temperatures get as high as 450 degrees Fahrenheit for roughly 6 minutes and the end result is a wet product. Can you help us?

We have a remedy and coating that will help this survive the bake cycle at these high temperatures and that will prevent “Wetting out” that you are experiencing.

Discussion courtesy of Winston Samuels, Ph.D.

Can you mask the horrible odor of Sodium Butyrate along with delivering to the lower gut?

Yes, our technology can help overcome the odor and deliver to the lower gut of animals. Note that Sodium Butyrate has been shown to increase villi height which means enhanced absorption of nutrients. The challenge has always been how to deliver this substance to the lower gut. Our microencapsulation precision release technology can do this.

Discussion courtesy of Winston Samuels, Ph.D.

Do you have a clean-label solution available today?

Yes, we indeed have clean label encapsulated ingredients either as a single or combination.

Discussion courtesy of Winston Samuels, Ph.D.

I have a finished product on shelves today that you can see moisture within a packet. What can be done to help me?

We have a solution for this that will help extend shelf life and assist with moisture. Microencapsulation is a remedy for your issue.

Discussion courtesy of Winston Samuels, Ph.D.

I am a pizza dough manufacturer who has been struggling with volume and shelf life. What can I do to increase both?

We have a blend of Sodium Bicarbonate and Sodium Aluminum Phosphate as well as a blend of Sodium Bicarbonate and Monocalcium Phosphate (“Clean Label”) that will result in you having thicker crust, bigger volume, better texture, and longer shelf-life, all in one!

Discussion courtesy of Winston Samuels, Ph.D.

Can your company not only mask flavors, but also enhance them?

Indeed! Our process delivers high impact flavor. The impact of the flavor will come out once the material is chewed. This means that no longer will one have to only experience the flavor all over the room. Now, with our technology you will be able to experience the taste of the flavor in the mouth.

Discussion courtesy of Winston Samuels, Ph.D.

Can your company stabilize enzymes?

Indeed, our company can do this on a toll basis. We would then use our proprietary technology to stabilize the enzymes for use in steam pelleting and other applications. We have been stabilizing enzymes now for over 10 years for use in animal feeds.

Discussion courtesy of Winston Samuels, Ph.D.

Do you supply a tasteless, non-GMO green tea?

Yes! We indeed do have a non-GMO encapsulated green tea that is effectively taste-masked with high bioavailability. Our tasteless green tea can be in bakery items, smoothies, bars and other applications.

Discussion courtesy of Winston Samuels, Ph.D.

Do you supply non-GMO citric acid for use in flour tortillas?

Yes! We do supply a coated, microencapsulated non-GMO citric acid for use in flour tortillas. We also supply other non-GMO ingredients as well for use across multiple applications.

Discussion courtesy of Winston Samuels, Ph.D.

We have a sweetener that shows the effects on cells in the lower gut. The challenge is to deliver the sweetener into the lower gut of humans. Can Maxx Performance do this?

Yes we can. With our proprietary precision release delivery system technology, we are able to deliver precisely to the lower gut of humans AND animals!

Discussion courtesy of Winston Samuels, Ph.D.

I’m in the process of creating a pre workout supplement. My problem? Taste! The caffeine (and potentially other ingredients) is making it very bitter. To make my product, all of the ingredients must be brought to a boil. If I were to get them microencapsulated, would that amount of heat alter the masking properties?

What you are asking for is exactly what we do. Taste masking of bitter and metallic tasting notes is part of our core. We mask the bitter taste of caffeine, green tea extract and other such ingredients.

When you say that everything has to come to a boil, how long would the ingredients be exposed to the “boil?” Can the Caffeine, for example, be added towards the end, as many others have done? Additionally, please note that we have coatings that can withstand temperatures as high as 181-187°F thereby ensuring adequate protection and masking of bitter notes.

Discussion courtesy of Winston Samuels, Ph.D.

Can your technology improve the stability of essential nutrients during fish feed processing and storage?

Yes. Our proprietary microencapsulation technology has been used to protect unstable nutrients such as Vitamin C and other labile ingredients through feed processing and storage and to enhance the bioavailability of these ingredients. For coated microencapsulated Vitamin C for example, there is a 100% retention through processing and delivery. In steam pelleting, there is a 94% stability. Microencapsulation allows the potential for having up to 180 days of shelf life improvement. Our technology is an ideal tool to improve stability of labile nutrients and to deliver these nutrients in a form that can be utilized by aquaculture animals such as shrimp. Stability of nutrients will reduce overdosing and represent substantial cost savings.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

Can microencapsuation be used to deliver bacteriostatic compounds?

Organic acids are used to reduce the pH in the small intestine of simple stomach animals such as pigs and poultry diets in order to provide a greater resistance to pathogenic bacterial infections. Post weaning diarrhea is one of the most frequent causes of heavy economic losses in pig herds. Before 2006, health strategies widely used antibiotic growth promoters to reduce enteric infections and the occurrence of pathogens able to adhere to intestinal mucosa. These are added to feed for piglets from birth to weaning with the aim of improving the composition. The increased use of antibiotics has given rise to a fear of the development of resistant pathogenic bacterial strains and residual contamination of the food chain with antibiotics. This has led to the adoption of safety measures and a gradual withdrawal of antibiotic promoters from pig diets. Because the use of antibiotics as growth promoters has been banned in certain countries and that the expansion of this policy to other countries can now be expected, intensive research has focused on the development of alternative strategies with the aim of maintenance of animal health and performance.

Various natural materials, many of which are commercially available, have been investigated as efficient alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. Organic Acids and essential oils are viable alternatives. In 2007 Piva and coworkers working with piglets in which a diet containing microencapsulated organic acid was fed at a 10 fold lower dose rate compared to the normal dose of unprotected organic acid demonstrated a similar response in the rate of piglet diarrhea. This means that a lower dose of protected microencapsulated organic acid was effective and economical in reducing the number of piglet diarrhea.

Besides antimicrobial function, organic acids and their salts have a beneficial effect on digestibility, nutrient resorption and performance of weaned and growing piglets. Antimicrobial effects can be explained by two mechanisms. First, by a pH fall below 6 in the stomach, which inhibits the growth of pathogenic microorganisms such as coliforms and, secondly, the ability of organic acids to penetrate in their non-dissociated form through the bacterial wall and destroy some specific microorganisms. Bactericidal or bacteriostatic effects of organic acids consist above all in a direct effect of the organic acid anions on bacterial cell walls. For organic acids to function as effective bacteriostat they must be delivered and dissociate in the large intestine where most harmful bacteria such as E.coli reside. They cannot release in the small intestine alone.

Animal studies where microencapsulated organic acid preparations have been used show an increase in villi height, a decrease in the number of piglet diarrhea and better feed conversion which means higher average weight gain. In totality, microencapsulation is being used to deliver compounds with bacteriostatic properties. These compounds such as organic acids, Zin Oxide and others are available commercially.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

Is there a difference between microencapsulation and encapsulation?

Project developers and formulators often use microencapsulation and encapsulation interchangeably. But the difference between the two is considerable.

Encapsulation is typically tied to spray drying, a form of nutrient protection that typically involves:

  • Health related nutrients for pharmaceutical delivery
  • Packing active ingredients into a hard shell or soft gel capsule ~10 mm long to preserve stability, mask their taste, etc.
  • Filled capsule is swallowed whole by the consumer

Microencapsulation, on the other hand, is a versatile and highly specialized delivery system that:

  • Broadens the scope of applications to the food processing industries (eg., bakery, confectionery, meat products)
  • Extends and enhances applications in feed additive for pet food processing industries
  • Provides a platform for ongoing innovation — such as enabling the conception of new products (ie., probiotic-enhancing), and improving the performance of existing ones (ie., extending shelf life)

At a time when more people want foods that are good for their health — whether it has to do with diabetes, cholesterol, heart, gut/bowel or weight management — manufacturers are seeking innovative solutions for products that satisfy these demands. Microencapsulation enables product developers to create new formulations that fulfill on functional benefits. In fact, microencapsulation is changing the way all products are developed, offering the power to protect, preserve and deliver critical ingredients in complex food and animal systems in meaningful new ways.

Per Suanne Klahorst, senior writer on the subject at the University of California, “Nature may have provided the inspiration, but science ensures the high level of performance and stability.”

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

How important is delivery of nutraceutical ingredients?

The delivery of nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds to improve human and animal health and nutrition are very important. Delivery technologies can enhance solubility. Technologies such as microencapsulation/encapsulation can facilitate controlled release, improve bio-availability and protect and extend the shelf life and stability of micronutrients and bioactive compounds during processing, storage and distribution. Microencapsulation can lead to the development of new flavor delivery systems to improve food quality and functionality. Controlled release may eventually lead to in-situ flavor and color modification of products. Understanding the mechanism of targeted delivery will provide a solid foundation that will enable food and supplement manufacturers to design smart food systems capable of ensuring the optimal health of a particular species. More and more companies are putting into practice controlled release technology, the majority of whom are interested in improving the biological availability of nutrients. There are significant amount of opportunities to use the technology to stabilize sensitive substances such as probiotics and enzymes; extend their shelf life and to deliver them into the distal portions of the gut where they will have their most activity. Why not use microencapsulation to overcome interaction and to preserve the potency of a particular nutrient? By protecting nutrients their potency can be maintained for a long time.

It is important to note that nutrients are not the only ingredients that can be delivered. Other bioactive compounds such as organic acid acidifiers targeted at the colon, antibiotics, and a host of others would be delivered using microencapsulation technology. For example, certain compounds have to be used at a higher rate in order to achieve optimum response simply because some of it is broken down before it reaches the targeted site. Typically, manufacturers compensate for this loss by overdosing. Vitamin C, because it is so unstable, is overdosed in order to achieve a certain amount. Overdosing represents money being thrown in the wind. Use of expensive flavor compounds to mask taste and off flavor is no different. By microencapsulating, which involves protecting an active with a food grade coating the size of the human hair, the amount of bioactive compound needed to illicit a response can be reduced.

Many nutraceuticals have offensive flavors, sometimes they are very difficult to incorporate in food systems because of solubility issues. Some compounds have poor bioavailability and may be unstable in certain processing conditions. The bioactivity of bioactive compounds may be reduced or eliminated when exposed to oxygen, heat or digestive enzyme. Microencapsulation as a delivery system has been used to eliminate this issue.

Microencapsulation has the potential to allow a new world of tiny coated particles of multiple products, nutrients, acidifiers and other compounds, wrapped up in a single matrix to be delivered simultaneously. For example, one could walk around with an ingredient that releases 12 hours of energy.

Post treatment of bioactives by microencapsulation which provides a chemically, physically and microbiologically stable environment for bioactive and coatings for ingested material to prolong delivery and enhance stability in water have been deliverable solutions. The delivery technologies involve primarily single nutrient delivery systems. These are often involved with pH and temperature control release systems. Manufactures are interested in multiple, compatible and synergestic nutrients delivered together. Animals such as ruminants (cows) with complex gastrointestinal tracts are the focus of many nutrient delivery because of the microbial destruction of nutrients in such systems. Additionally, the higher milk production of dairy cows require more efficient use of their feed and more targeted delivery of certain nutrients such as amino acids. We can now feed Vitamin C and Lysine to dairy animals because of microencapsulation technology. Additionally, even though particle size may be different, advances in microencapsulation technology now permits the coating of multiple ingredients that may not have the same particle size distribution. Manufactures are embracing this breakthrough because it opens up new potentials that otherwise were not previously available.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

Is Butyric Acid necessary for development of epithelial cells?

Butyric Acid indeed is necessary for development of epithelial cells which increases absorptive capacity

Short chain fatty acids such as butyric acid play a major role in the body. Several researchers have shown that butyric acid is necessary for the normal development of epithelial cells in simple stomach animals also known as monogastrics. Epithelial cells in the small intestine aid in the absorption of nutrients. The higher the height of the villi present on the epithelial cells, is the higher the rate of absorption. The absorptive epithelial cells found on the villi use butyric acid as an energy source.

Supplementing butyric acid can enhance absorption and overall increased productivity since nutrients can be utilized more efficiently. Butyric Acid is volatile and because of this, the exact amount cannot be guaranteed when added. Additionally, short chain fatty acids such as butyric acid when included in an unprotected form are not as available in the distal portion of the gastrointestinal tract where they will have their greatest impact. Butyric Acid is also very offensive in odor and therefore poses handling issues.

Microencapsulating as a delivery system to control odor, overcome volatility and deliver butyric acid for effective nutrient utilization

We here at Maxx have used our proprietary, high-tech delivery system to mask off odor and to deliver nutrients up and down the gastrointestinal tract! The technology can be used to control the volatile nature of butyric acid and other short chain fatty acids, mask their odor and deliver these to the lower parts of the small intestine allowing their use to optimize utilization of nutrients. Activities as high as 70% can be achieved compared to most available products with activities of 35-45%. With high concentrations, small amounts can be used which result in significant cost savings. Through microencapsulation ,there is no need to add different variations of butyric acid such as Sodium butyrate. The technology allows gradual release of butyric acid in the hindgut which can be used as energy source by the intestinal villi which increases the surface area for other nutrients to be absorbed.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

Could supplemental phytase be beneficial for human diets?

Phytase is an essential enzyme. Phytase is one of the many essential enzymes necessary for the digestive process, and a key enzyme for bone health. Commonly found in plant material, phytase is a natural enzyme often used for breaking down and increasing the nutritional quality of grains, legumes, seeds and corn. Studies confirm that the use of this enzyme can help reduce the need for calcium phosphate and increase digestive health.

Various health professionals are recommending the use of more vegetable and grain based diets for overall health. Phosphorous occurs naturally in vegetable and grain based diets. Much of the naturally occurring phosphorus in grains is unavailable to humans. In monogastric animals most plant phosphorus that is consumed is excreted undigested and inorganic phosphate has to be added to diets to compensate.

Phytases release plant phosphorous. Phosphorus is an essential nutrient in diets. It affects growth, reproduction and food and feed use. Phosphorous is bound by phytic acid. Phytases are digestive enzymes which release plant phosphorus from phytic acid. Phytic acid is the primary phosphate storage compound in seeds, typically contributing 50–80% of total phosphate in plant seeds. Phytic acid helps control effective germination, allowing for a phosphorous release boost when digested by seed phytase upon germination. Exogenous phytase mimics this process in the gastrointestinal tract by releasing this bound phosphorus making it available to the animal. The salt form of phytic acid is called phytate, and almost all phytic acid is present as a mixed salt (phytin). Research with monogastric animals have shown that phytate phosphorous is poorly available to animals and can reduce the digestibility of other nutrients and the performance of animals because of the anti-nutritional effect of phytic acid. Phytates are referred to as “anti-nutritional factor”. Phytase helps reduce the negative effects of phytic acid in the body. Many of the plants that we consume such as corn, grains, seeds, legumes, soybeans and most cereals contain high amounts of this phytic acid. Referred to as an “anti-nutritional factor,” these phytates (phytic acid) reduce our ability to absorb nutrients. Phytic acid has been shown to create insoluble complexes with minerals through its negatively charged phytic acid. This acid has the ability to bind to positively charged molecules in these minerals, as well as in proteins.

Monogastric animals lack sufficient phytases to release the phosphorus in vegetable diets. Adding extra phytases to the diet increases phytate breakdown and consequent utilization of plant phosphorus.

Phytases are unstable enzymes. Being similar, both natural and added phytase share another common feature: they are both extremely sensitive to exposure to high temperatures, such as those encountered during pelleting, for example. This has to do with their very own nature, in that being proteins, they are heat sensitive (only a few proteins are naturally heat resistant). Therefore, exposure to excessive heat reduces their efficacy and as such they release less phosphorus. Because of this, a high recovery (or resistance) to heat is a desired feature in commercially phytase. To make exogenous phytase heat-stable, its formulation (enzyme and carrier) and coating processes require a certain degree of sophistication and technology.

Technology to improve enzyme stability and overcome mineral complexes. Microencapsulation can be used to provide stability to enzyme. Studies have shown a 94% recovery rate of microencapsulated phytase when subjected to steam pelleting. Additionally, the technology can be used to coat anti nutritional factors such as phytates and others which tend to form mineral complexes and thereby prevent the formation of complexes which in turn will allow phytase enzymes to be more effective and increase the availability of phosphorous.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

We are managing a laboratory research facility and have the requirement for Vitamin C. Our current supplier is unable to provide a consistent product. Can you provide an economical, consist dosage supply that meets National Research Council guidelines?

Yes. Maxx Performance has the capability to provide an off-the-shelf ascorbic acid that meets your requirements without overdosing, which means you don’t waste product and you provide a consistent supply – all within NRC guidelines.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

I want to fortify my products with Vitamin C. Can I make a label claim guarantee?

The technology platform used by Maxx Performance is a robust one allowing for the delivery of a consistent product without over or underdosing with each and every delivery.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

My customers want caffeine to increase their energy level but they hate the taste. What can I do to solve this problem?

Tastemasking is a core capability of Maxx Performance. We have worked with caffeine in a number of applications and can easily provide you solutions to your problems without losing caffeine potency in your application.

Discussion courtesy of Winston Samuels, Ph.D.

If I put your encapsulated caffeine in a few finished product prototypes, how best can I measure or determine how much caffeine survived?

Regarding a dissolution curve for caffeine, if the coating is purely lipid and coated caffeine is particulate, simply filtering the product and assaying the filtrate for protein (by the kjeldahl procedure) would be a simple indirect method for checking the amount of caffeine no longer encapsulated. If the product is in a product containing protein, that system would not work.

Because caffeine is a purine, it has a UV absorption spectra that also can be used for quantification. It absorbs at 276 nm.

One could simply scan a filtered water extract and, providing other purines are not present in large amounts or do not absorb at this wavelength, this should be the simplest, most direct assay procedure for determining a dissolution curve.

Discussion courtesy of Fredric N. Owens, Ph.D., PAS

Is there a way to inhibit the effect of amylase enzyme on glucomannan?

Potential solutions will vary with the target animal, target site within the digestive tract and dosing duration desired. Is this for ruminants, nonruminants or humans? Where do you want it released? Is this a single dose or is the goal to feed the material continuously and continually inhibit amylase? Suggestions below are an attempt to relate to all scenarios.

First, nonruminants (except horses) produce saliva containing beta amylase. So some type of physical coating to reduce digestion during residence in the stomach may be needed.

Protecting the material from amylases in the intestine is more difficult. If this is a single dose, one could inhibit intestinal amylases for an hour or two by dosing with various amylase inhibitors (“Starch Blockers”) or amylose analogs. If the goal is continuous administration, one might package the material with one of several commercially available amylase inhibitors isolated from legumes or wheat as described here. Relative effectiveness of inhibitors in human diabetics has been variable with wheat amylase inhibitors often being more effective than legume derived amylase inhibitors as discussed here. One also could dose or encapsulate the material with the chemically derived amylase inhibitor, acarbose, a compound used with human diabetics. Being similar in structure to a hexaglucan, acarbose will competitively inhibit amylase.

If the product is for ruminants, coating the product with resistant protein or complex (e.g., mixed and dried with blood) or a saturated fat (e.g., palm oil) would protect it from ruminal destruction while liberating it under acid conditions in the abomasum or gradually with lipase in the small intestine. A sterol coating might work if one wants to deliver the material to the large intestine and avoid both ruminal and small intestinal digestion of ruminants or avoid digestion in the stomach and small intestine of nonruminants. Polysaccharide gels also could protect the compound from small intestinal enzymes, but release in the large intestine would be limited. Alternatively, one could form a capsule with commercially available resistant starch (retrograde starch usually derived from amylose) to deliver material to the large intestine where certain microbes (e.g., bifida) not found elsewhere in the gut would partially degrade the resistant starch and release a portion of the desired compound.

One also could consider linking ions (e.g., copper), calcium-binding compounds (e.g., citrate, oxalate, phytate) to reduce calcium (that is an essential cofactor for amylase) or chemically bind fatty acids to free hydroxyls of the glucomannan hoping that these would not inhibit the desired action of the compound. Finally, one could encapsulate the material with an organic or inorganic acid to lower the local pH below the optimum for amylase activity (7.4). One also could include a protein-binding (and amylase binding) agent (e.g., tannin; formaldehyde) and thereby inhibit degradation immediately around a capsule.

Discussion courtesy of Fredric N. Owens, Ph.D., PAS

How might microencapsulation improve the absorption of Zinc?

Zinc is an essential nutrient in humans and all animals and serves many functions in the biological processes. Zinc is known to prevent Cardio Vascular disease through the role it plays in reduction of inflammation. It has been long known that zinc is extremely important in immune responsiveness. It does so through the role it plays in over 200 enzymes that are found as a component in the body. Its role in maintaining cell integrity enhances the wound healing process, maintains healthier cells and prevents invasion of bacteria and other pathogens.

Zinc has been popular with chelated mineral companies because zinc deficient subjects do exist and zinc supplementation does show improvement in things like health, reproduction and subsequently production efficiency. The chelated or complex mineral companies usually state that chelated minerals are more biologically available than their inorganic counterparts. This may or may not be the case. Zinc is transported across the gut via transport proteins, thus it is chelated to transport proteins for absorption. It is transported in the blood stream bound to protein as well.

There are various factors that can increase or decrease the absorptive efficiency of zinc. Anything that has the potential to increase the absorptive efficiency of zinc during a clinical or sub-clinical deficiency of zinc, has the potential to show positive changes in various parameters including reproduction, immune responsiveness, wound healing, etc. So, the key question is whether microencapsulating zinc will improve the bioavailability of it to animals or humans. At present, there is no known data that indicate that microencapsulating zinc would or any data that suggest it could potentially increase the absorption of zinc across the gut. However, microencapsulating of zinc will effectively taste mask zinc and could potentially reduce the interaction with zinc and its antagonist in the gut, but in order for it to be absorbed in its normal transport process, it would have to be released from the capsule in the duodenum allowing its binding to transport proteins. As it is released from the capsule it would then be available to be bound to those antagonist before attachment and transport via transport proteins/ligands. Another known antagonist to zinc is increasing levels of dietary copper (Cu). However, this antagonist (Cu) works through competition for binding sites on the transport protein. As Cu increases in the diet, it binds to metallothionien stronger than zinc, therefore tying up the transport site for zinc.

Metallothionien is a transport protein for zinc. In this relationship, microencapsulating zinc would not be beneficial to prevent the antagonist effect from Cu or other antagonist. However, for humans in particular, since zinc has an unpleasant taste, microencapsulation of this essential nutrient will allow its use across a wide cross section of applications.

Discussion courtesy of L. Wayne Greene, Ph.D.

Can microencapsulated vitamin C prevent browning of fruit and vegetable products during cooking or storage?

The Browning or Maillard reaction is a non-enzymatic browning that results in condensation of an amino group with a reducing compound, often a sugar. This reaction results in complex changes in biological and food systems. Louis Maillard described this process in 1912. The Browning reaction occurs when foods containing protein and reducing sugars are heated; it also occurs gradually during storage at any temperature. Some effects of the Browning reaction, including the caramel aromas and golden brown colors, are desirable. However, other effects of are undesirable; these include foods darkening, development of off-flavors, and reduced bioavailability of certain amino acids, especially lysine.

Research in recent years has sought effective and economical methods to prevent browning in various fruit and vegetable products. Concerted efforts have been made to understand the basic biochemistry involved in enzymatic browning reactions of various fruits and vegetables and to find practical approaches to reduce or prevent the browning reactions of both fresh and processed products. For years, cookbooks have recommended the dipping fruits and fruit products in a solution of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) or lemon juice (to supply citric and ascorbic acid) to prevent browning and discoloration of products being stored, canned, or frozen. Gunes and Lee (J. Food Sci. 62:572-5, 582; 1997) further demonstrated that dipping potato chips in Ascorbic Acid delayed the onset of browning for several days. Dipping of fruits and vegetables in a solution of Ascorbic Acid is not as convenient as powdering a fruit or vegetable product with a dry form of ascorbic acid. Unfortunately, unprotected ascorbic acid is readily oxidized and loses its activity when exposed to air. Thus, for processed fruits and vegetables and their products, a microencapsulated Ascorbic Acid, through its increased stability in air and more gradual release over time of its antioxidant (Oxygen scavenging) properties should be a convenient and effective method to protect against darkening of fruit and vegetables and their products. Like dipping in ascorbic acid, a powdered encapsulated ascorbic acid will prevent some of the adverse effects of the Browning Reaction. Besides extending the shelf life of fruits and vegetables and their products, microencapsulated Ascorbic Acid also provides added nutritional value through product fortification with vitamin C.

Discussion courtesy of Fredric N. Owens, PhD., PAS and Winston A. Samuels, PhD.

Can you encapsulate diisocyanates with a low temperature release (80°C)?

Maxx Performance has a range of optimized leavening ingredients with different granulation sizes that have performed effectively in similar systems to accomplish the exact goals you are after. These range from sodium bicarbonates, sodium aluminum phosphate, mono calcium phosphate and others. Note that we also have the capability to tailor make an ingredient that will work in your application.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

We are working on an antioxidant for a tea bag application. Our issue is the particle size is so small that they are migrating through the tea bag and settling out in the liquid, making it unsightly. Additionally, the ingredient is gumming up our processing equipment causing increased costs. Do you have technology that will increase the particle size of our ingredient and reduce or eliminate gumming up of our equipment?

Yes, our technology will increase the particle size of your antioxidant ingredient, eliminate dustiness, allow for better worker safety, prevent gumming up of equipment and prevent settling out of fine particles. We use a water soluble coating that allows your ingredient to release overtime so that your end user can enjoy the health benefits of drinking tea fortified with antioxidants.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

I want to add “sour” to my chewing gum product. What’s your capability?

We have available a citric acid that’s cost effective as well as a malic and tartaric acid. We can vary the activity base upon the needs of your specific application.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

I’m a manufacturer of sour candies and I’m looking for a quick dissolve, trans fat free solution with high acidulant activity that’s stable. Can you help?

Maxx Performance has water soluble and trans fat free solutions for applications like yours. We can provide you with a customized acidulant that will provide you with the manufacturing characteristics you require.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

I want an acidulant that will add tartness to my cold beverage but will disappear within 30 seconds. How can I get this delayed release?

Maxx Performance can manipulate our coatings to delay the delivery of the acidulant within your timeframe, allowing you to easily produce the cold beverage of your choice.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

I need to put sodium bicarbonate in my product for fizziness and an acidulant for tartness, but I want to gain a “health edge” over my competition and lower the sodium. Is there any way to do this?

Yes! Maxx Performance can easily replace your sodium bicarbonate by providing a custom solution of potassium bicarbonate and acidulant, thereby replacing the sodium content of your product and giving you that healthy edge in the marketplace.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

I want to add carbonation and tartness to a dry mix that will go into a beverage. How can I do this quickly?

We work with our customers to design customized solutions for situations just like this. Maxx Performance has a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid that will accomplish your needs.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

How can I add caffeine to an energy gum and avoid the bitterness during chewing?

In terms of whether adding microencapsulated Caffeine to your Caffeine gum would maintain its integrity through the chewing process the answer is yes. We have two Caffeine of very fine particle sizes that are being used for this application. Using these fine Caffeine particles will withstand the mastication process and will prevent the bitter Caffeine notes from being released.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

What are the most important factors to consider if we were to encapsulate folic acid and ascorbic acid together?

The particle size would be the most important. Preferably, it would be ideal to get ingredients with the same particle size distribution. However, our process is flexible such that although the particle size distribution may not be the same we can still coat them effectively into one matrix. Get both ingredients particle sizes as close as possible, mix them and send to us. We will coat based on the required functionality and return for you to evaluate in your application.

Discussion courtesy of Winston Samuels, Ph.D.

We have a product which is a clinically supported whole cranberry powder for urinary tract infections. This product is only 60% soluble in water and we are looking to make it 100% water soluble using microencapsulation technology.

If the material is only 60% soluble in water then use of microencapsulation technology will not make it more soluble. Is there some other reason aside from the structure of the material why it is only 60% soluble in water? Have you tried to grind it down into more a powder to see whether this will improve solubility?

Discussion courtesy of Winston Samuels, Ph.D.

Do you offer ingredients for the Gluten-Free market?

Yes. Our ingredients are Gluten-Free. Our coated Fumaric Acid which is used to extend shelf life by retarding mold growth is used in Gluten-Free flat bread applications.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

My company wants to deliver nutrients to the lower GI tract. Can you help?

A core capability of Maxx Performance is working confidentially with our customers across different applications in the delivery of nutrients up and down the gastrointestinal tract.

Discussion courtesy of Discussion courtesy of Winston Samuels, Ph.D.

I am producing meat snacks and using acidulants. However, both products cause denaturing of the protein and hot spots of localized acids. I’m trying to prevent microbial growth, premature lowering of the pH, and reduce my processing time. What can I do?

Maxx Performance has a citric acid specifically designed to overcome problems like this in the meat snack industry. Glucona delta lactone (GDL) is also available.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

Why should I use a slower release acidulant such as Glucono delta lactone (GDL) when this acid already releases slowly?

When added into an aqueous solution GDL dissolves rapidly into the medium. Subsequently it hydrolyses slowly to gluconic acid, thereby, decreasing the pH in a progressive and continuous manner to equilibrium. This gentle acidification makes GDL outstanding compared to the instantaneous acidification obtained with other acidulants such as monocalcium phosphate (MCP). GDL acidifies the baked good, slows down mold development significantly and prolongs shelf life in a natural way without negative effects on taste.

As GDL’s dough rate of reaction (DRR) is slow to intermediate and as temperature control further allows it to slow down or speed up the conversion of GDL to gluconic acid and therefore the rate of carbon dioxide release, GDL can replace both fast (MCPs) and slow sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPPs). In situations where the DRR of GDL needs to be slower, then microencapsulated slow release GDL can be used. Microencapsulated slow acting GDL is an acidulant that can be used in a baked item that imparts little flavor. Microencapsulated slow release GDL is recommended for use in refrigerated dough and frozen biscuits dough.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

What is the maximum amount of lead permitted in animal feed?

According to information found in NAS. 1980. Mineral tolerance of domestic animals. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC. p. 256-276. Cattle, sheep, and chickens have been fed 10 ppm supplemental lead in a soluble form for extended periods without adverse effects. Significant increases in tissue lead levels occurred when 100 ppm lead was fed to the same species. Dietary lead at 1,000 ppm has been tolerated by ruminants and poultry for several months with no visible signs of toxicosis. Approximately 300 ppm dietary lead resulted in observable signs of toxicosis in horses of various ages. Young growing pigs fed 11 mg lead per kilogram of body weight suffered from diarrhea, and 33 mg resulted in decreased growth and muscle tremors. Death occurred with a dietary intake of 66 mg lead per kilogram of body weight. With regard to acute toxicosis, the ingestion of 200 to 400 mg lead (as acetate) per kilogram of body weight caused acute death in calves and lambs up to 4 months old. In older cattle and sheep, the lethal single oral dose was 600 to 800 mg/kg of body weight. A single oral dose of 500 g lead acetate (700 mg lead per kilogram of body weight) was lethal to horses. The maximum tolerable dietary level for lead is considered to be 30 ppm for most species, although detectable increases in lead concentration may occur in certain tissues.

Discussion courtesy of L. Wayne Greene, Ph.D.

Can a coated urea product be used as a method to neutralize the fermentation acids produced in the rumen of cows?

When ruminal pH drops below 5.4, it causes subclinical acidosis (characteristic of lactating cows) and feed intake to be irregular or reduced. When it drops below 5.0, it causes acute acidosis more typical with feedlot diets. Any pH below 6.0 also depresses Neutral Detergent Fiber digestion by cellulolytic bacteria, so holding ruminal pH up not only avoids acidosis, but increases fiber digestibility.

At the pH of the rumen, ammonia released from any free urea acts as a base, neutralizing fermentation acids and preventing ruminal pH from dropping. Dr. Mike Allen (J. Dairy Sci. 1447-1462) summarized the amounts of acids typically produced in the rumen and the degree of neutralization provided by salivary bicarbonate and feed buffers. Allen reported that adding more than 1% of the diet as a slow-release urea should never be necessary with dairy diets, but with high concentrate feedlot diets higher amounts may be needed. A 1% urea level would be far below the amount that is presumed to cause toxicity when urea (unbound) is added to the diet according to common rules of thumb for safe use (3% of diet dry matter or 1/3 of dietary protein, either of which would cause ruminal ammonia to exceed 100 mg/ml).

With slow-release qualities, microencapsulated urea should not cause ammonia toxicity and represents a source of supplemental nitrogen for rumen bacteria.

Discussion courtesy of Fred Owens, Ph.D

Is there a relationship between Sodium Butyrate availability and Probiotics and their impact on maintaining the integrity of the lining of the gut?

Regarding butyrate, individuals with irritable bowel syndrome and celiac disease have an abnormal microbial population in their intestines according to a presentation by James Versalovic, an MD gastroenterologist from Baylor (paper 625 from the Dairy Foods Symposium. Towards a Mechanistic Understanding of Probiotic Function in Man and Animals. 2010 Joint Annual Meeting. ADSA/PSA/AMPSA/CSAS/WSASAS/ASAS. Denver, CO). Check his website. Individuals with such disorders characteristically lack butyrate producing bacteria in their small or large intestine. Is that a problem? In the rumen of cows, conversion of butyrate to beta-hydroxy butyrate serves as the primary energy source for cells of the rumen wall. I presume the same holds true for the intestinal wall of non-ruminants such as humans. Perhaps lack of butyrate is reducing nutrient absorption or altering gut health and metabolism and thereby permitting other microbes to proliferate that otherwise would be starved for nutrients. If so, providing a slow-release sodium butyrate or providing probiotics that produce butyrate might help provide needed nutrients for the gut wall and help to solve these prevalent problems with humans.

Discussion courtesy of Dr. Fredric N. Owens, Ph.D., PAS

Can your technology mask the odor of short chain fatty acids such as butyric acid and deliver it to the hindgut?

Short chain fatty acids such as butyric acid play a major role in the body. Several researchers have shown that butyric acid is necessary for the normal development of epithelial cells in simple stomach animals also known as monogastrics. Epithelial cells in the small intestine aid in the absorption of nutrients. The higher the height of the villi present on the epithelial cells is the higher the rate of absorption. The absorptive epithelial cells found on the villi use butyric acid as an energy source.

Supplementing butyric acid can enhance absorption and overall increased productivity since nutrients can be utilized more efficiently. Butyric Acid is volatile and because of this the exact amount cannot be guaranteed when added. Additionally, short chain fatty acids such as butyric acid when included in an unprotected form are not as available in the distal portion of the gastrointestinal tract where they will have their greatest impact. Butyric Acid is also very offensive in odor and therefore poses handling issues.

Microencapsulating as a delivery system to control odor, overcome volatility and deliver butyric acid for effective nutrient utilization:

Maxx Performance has used its proprietary high tech delivery system to mask off odor and to deliver nutrients up and down the gastrointestinal tract. The technology can be used to control the volatile nature of butyric acid and other short chain fatty acids, mask their odor and deliver these to the lower parts of the small intestine allowing their use to optimize utilization of nutrients. Activities as high as 70% can be achieved compared to most available products with activities of 35-45%. With high concentrations small amounts can be used which result in significant cost savings. Through microencapsulation there is no need to add different variations of butyric acid such as Sodium butyrate. The technology allows gradual release of butyric acid in the hindgut which can be used as energy source by the intestinal villi which increases the surface area for other nutrients to be absorbed.

Discussion courtesy of Winston Samuels, Ph.D.

What form does copper need to be in mineral blocks so the cows can utilize it?

Copper sulfate, carbonate, and oxide often are the inorganic forms of copper most often fed to cattle. Sulfates have the highest biological availability while carbonates and oxides have intermediate and very low (if any) bioavailability, respectively, according to Ammerman and Miller (J. Anim. Sci. 35:681; 1972). Copper chelated with organic materials (linked to amino acids or protein) usually has a higher bioavailability than sulfate because it is not as likely to complex with sulfide or selenide in the rumen. These bind with copper to make the copper insoluble and unavailable for animal use. Molybdenum also can complex with copper making it unavailable. Injectable forms of copper (glycinate and EDTA) are available but can prove toxic due to very rapid availability. Copper in glass beadlets or as copper needles release copper very slowly but remain in the reticulorumen and release copper over several months. These have been used primarily in Europe and Australia for grazing animals. Copper sulfate is used most widely and has higher bioavailability than the carbonate and might be preferable, but simply adding more of the carbonate to account for lower bioavailability also will work. In regions of high sulfate diets or water, use of the oxide or carbonate may be preferred. Because copper is a cumulative poison for sheep and possibly goats, trace mineralized salt for these species should NOT contain any or as much copper as trace mineralized salt for cattle.

Discussion courtesy of Dr. Fred Owens

Does your company do private labeling, including kosher certification?

Yes, our company does private labeling and if you were to purchase an ingredient from us with a requirement for kosher we will work with the OU to issue you a kosher with your name. You can then sell this kosher ingredient under your own private label.

Discussion courtesy of Courtney Samuels

How can I produce a quick-dissolve type ingredient for a geriatric product incorporating nutrients in a foaming dry mix that releases upon contact with moisture in the mouth?

Our product development platform gives us the ability to combine quick dissolve capabilities with our taste masking expertise in all nutritional applications.

Discussion courtesy of Winston Samuels, Ph.D.

My dry mixes that use minerals such as iron have a metallic taste and go rancid too quickly. Can you help?

Maxx Performance has a variety of “off the shelf” microencapsulated iron compounds that prevent the oxidation of iron and its interaction with other compounds, helping overcome your rancidity and metallic taste problems. These minerals can be used in infant formulas and nutrition bars as well as other dry mix applications.

Discussion courtesy of Winston Samuels, Ph.D.

How can we overcome the bitterness and astringent odor that botanicals such as Green Tea Extract and White Willow Bark provide?

Tastemasking is a core capability of Maxx Performance. We can custom microencapsulate these ingredients, as well as others, allowing you to overcome these undesirable side effects.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, PhD.

Do you do blending?

We have blending capabilities at our Roanoke, VA manufacturing facility. We can blend large amounts of multiple ingredients.

Discussion courtesy of Courtney Samuels

How much EGCG is being delivered in your tasteless green tea extract and will this material survive baking?

In an article that could be of interest – Chow et al 2005, Clinical Cancer Research – humans were administered differing doses of a decaffeinated green tea catechin mixture. Mild nausea was found in participants, especially at the 1200 mg EGCG dose and also while fasting. However, 800 mg of EGCG were well tolerated. Their verbatim Conclusions were: “We conclude that greater oral bioavailability of free catechins can be achieved by taking the Polyphenon E capsules on an empty stomach after an overnight fast. Polyphenon E up to a dose that contains 800 mg epigallocatechin gallate is well-tolerated when taken under the fasting condition. This dosing condition is also expected to optimize the biological effects of tea catechins”.

The envisioned use of the microencapsulated green tea extract most likely will be part of a food item which will be used to deliver the green tea extract. But in any case, using 800 mg EGCG, will bypass the two negative findings of that clinical study. The fasting will be bypassed by including the microencapsulated extract in food, so fasting conditions will not apply, and by choosing doses up to 800 mg EGCG (max), lower dose than the one producing challenges will also be avoided.

In bakery applications at a commercial bakery the high end of green tea extract was used to eliminate the possibility of a shortage of EGCG. Based on a liberal dosage qualification, 250 mg of green tea extract was assumed to be equivalent to one cup of green tea. 250 mg of green tea extract (or one cup of green tea) contains approximately 30 mg EGCG and 100 mg of polyphenols. At the commercial bakery 750 mg, a full daily recommended dosage equivalent to 3 cups of green tea or 750 mg per serving (one muffin, one slice of quick bread, one brownie, or two slices of yeast bread) was used. The amount of microencapsulated green tea extract used in the commercial bakery applications yielded 90 mg EGCG per serving and 300 mg of polyphenols per serving. The 750 mg of green tea extract was used to produce tasteless fudge brownies, banana nut muffins, scones and bread which indicates that the high temperature did not rupture the coating around the green tea extract.

The new microencapsulated green tea extract from Maxx Performance is able to deliver the benefits of green tea extract without the bitter taste.

Discussion courtesy of Dr. Patricia Rayas Duarte, Professor, Cereal Chemistry, Oklahoma State University and Matt Allgood, General Manager Heaven Sent Nutri-Bakery Products

Are Slow Release Chemical Leaveners Better for Baking?

The answer is a resounding yes.

In yeast-leavened bread products, microencapsulated preservatives systems like Sorbic Acid are typically applied because they protect against any interactions with the yeast before baking, and therefore deliver the biggest volume and better texture.

In the case of chemically leavened products, using encapsulated leavening agents (i.e., bicarbonates and acids) helps maintain the proper balance of acidic and basic ingredients, preventing premature reactions and leavening during dough development and production which would otherwise result in loss of volume. In products that use a combination of yeast and chemical leavening (such as self-rising refrigerated and frozen pizza), the encapsulated leavening agents provide a dual function: preventing the premature reaction of the leavening agents themselves, while still protecting the yeast.

In addition, encapsulating leavening and preservative acid systems prevents the acids from denaturing the gluten network before baking, enhancing appearance and extending shelf life.

What can this same microencapsulation/encapsulation technology do for your baked goods? Plenty:

  • Mask undesirable flavors or odors
  • Provide ingredient stability
  • Overcome sensitivity to oxygen
  • Prevent premature release of ingredients
  • Prevent ingredient interaction/oxidation
  • Extend shelf life
  • Overcome moisture pick up
  • Overcome processing challenges on the line
  • Enhance flavor and quality
  • Improve texture
  • Improve the efficacy of active ingredients
  • Deliver functional ingredients
  • Deliver free-flowing consistent quality ingredients
  • Control release
  • Enhance bioavailability

Microencapsulated coated ingredients are also used in a variety of other baking and confectionary applications to stabilize iron compounds, overcome spoilage due to oxidation, prevent “wetting out” of fruit acids in sanded candy applications, deliver intense long-lasting sour flavors in confections, and so much more.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

I have developed a sweet baked good with a sugar glaze, but I am experiencing product recalls because the sugar is thawing. How can you help me with the instability of the sugar through the freeze/thaw cycle?

Your problem is not unique to the baking industry. Sugar is hygroscopic and is therefore prone to picking up moisture. Our microencapsulation technology can coat the sugar allowing prevention of freeze thaw instability, overcoming your product recalls.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

What is the FDA’s requirement for Vitamin C to make a label claim on bread?

The regulations on claiming adjusted vitamin values in products are below. Claims can be made that the product has “more”, “added”, “extra”, or “plus” as long as the product contains 10% or more of the DV per reference amount. They could also claim a “good source” of vitamin C if food contains at least 10% of the Reference Daily Intake (RDI) or Daily Reference Value (DRV) (both declared on the label as the “Daily Value” (DV)) or a “high” claim may be made when a food contains at least 20% of the DV. I hope this helps.
From the FDA’S website (11/2007)

  1. What is a nutrient content claim? It is a claim on a food product that directly or by implication characterizes the level of a nutrient in the food (e.g., “low fat” or “high in oat bran”). Nutrient content claims are also known as “descriptors”.
  2. What nutrient levels must be present in a food to use nutrient content “descriptors” on food labels? The nutrient levels needed to use nutrient content claims are shown in Appendices A and B.A Food Labeling Guide–Appendix B
    Food Labeling CFR References
    Relative (or Comparative) Claims

    “High”, “Rich In”, or “Excellent Source Of” Contains 20% or more of the Daily Value (DV) to describe protein, vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, or potassium per reference amount. May be used on meals or main dishes to indicate that product contains a food that meets definition. May not be used for total carbohydrate.

    “Good Source of”, “Contains” or “Provides” 10%-19% of the DV per reference amount. These terms may be used on meals or main dishes to indicate that product contains a food that meets definition. May not be used for total carbohydrate.

    “More”, “Added”, “Extra”, or “Plus” 10% or more of the DV per reference amount. May only be used for vitamins, minerals, protein, dietary fiber, and potassium.

  3. If a nutrient content claim is not included in FDA’s regulations, may it be used on a label? If a claim is provided for an FDA regulation, then it may be used in accordance with that regulation. A firm may also submit a notification for a claim based on an authoritative statement by a U.S. government scientific body under Section 403(r)(2)(G) of the FD&C Act. All other claims are prohibited.
  4. Where are nutrient content claims specifically defined by the agency? In 21 CFR 101.13, Subpart D of part 101, and parts 105 and 107.
  5. When may a “high” or a “good source” claim be made? A “good source” claim may be made when a food contains at least 10% of the Reference Daily Intake (RDI) or Daily Reference Value (DRV) (both declared on the label as the “Daily Value” (DV)). A “high” claim may be made when a food contains at least 20% of the DV.

Conditions For the Use of “Healthy”

BENEFICIAL NUTRIENTS Contains at least 10% of DV/RA for vitamins A, C, calcium, iron, protein, or fiber. Except raw fruits and vegs.; frozen or canned single ingredient fruits and vegs., except that ingredients whose addition does not change the nutrient profile of the fruit or veg. may be added; enriched cereal-grain products that conform to a standard of identity in 21 CFR 136, 137, or 139.

For the use of “healthy” in meals/main dish
Contains 10% DV/l.s. of 2 nutrients (vit. A, C, calcium, iron, protein, or fiber) for main dish, 3 nutrients for meal

Discussion courtesy of Dr. Patricia RayasDuarte

I want to maximize yeast performance and increase shelf life of my bakery products; what do you have that will allow me to accomplish both goals?

Our microencapsulated sorbic acid will do this cost effectively for you. When used, this optimized ingredient will maximize yeast performance and deliver antimicrobial activity. Because it releases later in the bake cycle it will have no activity on the yeast and therefore yeast activity is maximized.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

I manufacture frozen and refrigerated doughs that I want to become more shelf stable. How do I delay leavening during preparation and processing?

Maxx Performance has a range of optimized leavening ingredients with different granulation sizes that have performed effectively in similar systems to accomplish the exact goals you are after. These range from sodium bicarbonates, sodium aluminum phosphate, mono calcium phosphate and others. Note that we also have the capability to tailor make an ingredient that will work in your application.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

I need my dough to have more “grain” so the dough can be more flexible, and I need more dough strength without losing leavening gas. I’m currently using raw Vitamin C… how can you help?

Use of microencapsulated ascorbic acid is used to add “grain” and to provide better dough rheology, provide texture and add dough strength without loss of leavening gas.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

How can I prevent inconsistent leavening following freeze/thaw abuse with my frozen muffins, biscuits and rising crust pizza?

Maxx Performance offers a variety of blends of sodium bicarbonate.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

How do I extend shelf life in yeast leavened flat breads, pan breads and bagels? I am observing mold in my end product.

Maxx Performance offers a sorbic acid that does not interfere with yeast activity. The end result is extended shelf life by releasing at higher oven temperatures after yeast activity is over. This means it does not interfere with the yeast.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

How do I prevent premature leavening?

Microencapsulated sodium bicarbonate can eliminate interactions with fruit acids that cause premature leavening and color bleeding during thawing. It also increases shelf life and provides consistent leavening following freeze thaw abuse.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

We are testing a sample of a bake-stable ascorbic acid. How do we successfully measure vitamin C after baking to know whether this product worked?

Measurement of the total reducing equivalents of a liquid extract of the baked sample both before and after addition of ascorbic acid oxidase (to oxidize and remove the ascorbic acid; available from Genzyme) should be a usable procedure to determine the free ascorbic acid in baked bread. I presume that any assay procedure for ascorbate when combined with AAO (to remove background interference), maybe even the dipsticks from Sigma, when combined with appropriate standards should work and avoid the more complex spectrophotometric procedures and calculations outlined.

Discussion courtesy of Fredric N. Owens, Ph.D., PAS

Can you produce a stabilized yeast for a specific temperature range, and one that will reactivates its fermentation and leavening activity only after a set temperature in the oven during baking?

Microencapsulation/encapsulation has been used to stabilize oxygen sensitive materials and to increase the shelf life of biological ingredients such as probiotics, yeast and enzymes. In particular, the technology has been useful in improving the stability of enzymes and yeast for inclusion into pelleted diets. Baker’s yeast is very expensive. To extend shelf life, manufactures typically package in vacuum sealed containers. Stability of 1-2 years is claimed, with vacuum sealed packaging. However, once the seal is disrupted then shelf life of the baker’s yeast decreases dramatically due to its sensitivity to oxygen. By applying microencapsulation to encapsulate every yeast particle there is no need to pack it under nitrogen. Coated stabilized yeast can be exposed to oxygen without degrading and when used at a rate of 1-1.5% per 100 lb of flour will give better performance than raw dry yeast that has a poor shelf life when exposed to air. Encapsulated yeast affords bakers the need for no overdosing, less product usage, better functionality and storage savings since there will be no need to install elaborate and expensive handling systems

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D

Can Natamycin be used in bakery applications instead of Sorbic Acid?

The FDA permits use of Natamycin (Pimaricin) for use on the surface of cuts and slices of cheese. It is not approved in the United States to prevent mold growth in baked goods. Natamycin may be applied to cheese by dipping or spraying a liquid solution that contains 200-300 ppm of Natamycin.

Discussion courtesy of Winston A. Samuels, Ph.D